Susan Carey


Department of Psychology
Harvard University
33 Kirkland St.
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone: 617-384-7918
Fax: 617-384-7944
[email protected]


Susan Carey's research concerns the development of concepts in the child and adult (i.e., over ontogenesis), and the cultural construction of concepts over history. Her research is informed by insights from philosophical analyses of concepts, historical analyses of conceptual change in science, and experimental studies of human infants, young children and adults, and of non-human primates. Understanding conceptual development requires characterizing the initial representational repertoire, what changes with development, and the learning mechanisms that underlie these changes. Dr. Carey’s research specifies the conceptually rich building blocks of human cognition and documents conceptual discontinuities, episodes of change that increase representational power or involve the construction of conceptual systems incommensurable with those they supplant. With respect to the mechanisms that underlie conceptual change, Carey has concentrated on a bootstrapping process first sketched by historians and philosophers of science that she calls “Quinian bootstrapping.” Current case studies include representations of abstract relations and logical connectives, and conceptual changes within intuitive theories of biology and physical reasoning.


Harvard University, Ph.D., 1971
London University, Fulbright Fellowship, 1965
Radcliffe College, B.A., 1964

Professional Experience

2001-              Professor, Harvard Department of Psychology
1996-2001     Professor, NYU Department of Psychology
1984-1996     Professor, MIT Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences
1977-1984     Associate Professor, MIT Psychology Department
1972-1977     Assistant Professor, MIT Psychology Department

Honors and Awards

Atkinson Prize, National Academy of Sciences, 2020; APA Division 7 Mentor Award 2013; Cognitive Development Society Book Award 2011; Eleanor Maccoby Award for the Best Book in Developmental Psychology (APA) 2010; Ottawa Township High School Hall of Fame, 2009; APA Distinguished Scientific Achievement Award, 2009; The David E. Rumelhart Prize, 2009; The British Academy, Corresponding Fellow, 2007; American Philosophical Society, 2007; National Academy of Sciences, 2002; William James Fellow, American Psychology Society, 2002; American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 2001; Society for Experimental Psychology, 1999; National Academy of Education, 1999; Guggenheim Fellowship, 1999-2000; George A. Miller Lecturer, 1998.  Society of Cognitive Neuroscience; Nicod Prize, Paris, 1998; Cattell Fellowship, 1995-1996; Fellow, Institute for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences, 1984-1985; Sloane Fellow, University of California, Berkeley, 1980-1981; Radcliffe Institute Fellowship, 1976-1978

Papers in refereed journals

Please note: These electronic articles are posted for individual, non-commercial use to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly work. They are intended for teaching and training purposes only. Articles may not be reposted or disseminated without permission by the copyright holder. Copyright holders retain all rights as indicated within each article.

Leahy, B., Huemer, M., Steele, M., Alderette, S., and Carey, S. (in press).  Minimal representations of possibility at age 3.  PNAS.

Carey, S. (2022).  Becoming a cognitive scientist.  Annual Review of Developmental Psychology. , Volume 4, 2022,

Bascandziev, I. & Carey, S. (2022). Young children learn equally from real and thought experiments. In J. Culbertson, A. Perfors, H., Rabagliati, & V. Ramenzoni (Eds.), Proceedings of the 44th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Toronto CA: Cognitive Science Society. Vol. 4, December 2022,

Feiman, R., Mody, S., & Carey S. (2022). The development of reasoning by exclusion in infancy.  Cognitive Psychology, 135, 101473, 1-20

Kominsky, J., Li, Y., & Carey, S. (2022).  Infant's attribution of insides and animacy in causal interactions.  Cognitive Science, 46 (1), e13087.

Kroupin, I. & Carey, S. (2021). Population differences in performance on Relational Match to Sample (RMTS) sometimes reflect differences in inductive biases alone.  Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 37, 75-83.

Kroupin, I. & Carey, S. (2021). You cannot find what you are not looking for: Population differences in relational reasoning are sometimes differences in inductive biases alone. Cognition, 222 (6). 1005007.

Kroupin, I. & Carey, S. (2021). The importance of inference in relational reasoning: Relational matching as a case study. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 151 (1), 22412022

Haward, P., Carey, S., Prasada, S., (2021). The formal structure of kind representations. Cognitive Science 45, e13040

Palian, H., Carey, S., Halberda, J.  Pepperberg, I. (2020). Age and species comparisons of visual mental manipulation ability as evidence for its development and evolution. Nature: Science Reports, 10, 7689

Tardiff, N., Bascandziev, I., Carey, S.  Zaitchik, D. (2020). Specifying the domain general resources that contribute to conceptual construction:  Evidence from the child's acquisition of vitalist biology. Cognition, 195, 109040

Leahy, B. & Carey, S.  (2019). The acquisition of modal concepts. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 65-78.

Carey, S., Leahy, B., Redshaw, J. & Suddendorf, T.  (2019). Could it be so? The cognitive science of possibility. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 24, 3-4.

Carey, S. & Barner, D. (2019). Ontogenetic Origins of Human Integer Representations. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 23, 823-835

Pepperberg, I., Gray, S., Mody, S., Cornero, F., and Carey S. (2019).  Logical Reasoning by a Grey Parrot? A Case Study of the Disjunctive Syllogism. Behaviour, 156, 409-445.

Long, B., Moher, M., Carey, S. & Konkle, T. (2019). Real-world size is automatically encoded in preschoolers’ object representations.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance.

Kominsky, J.  & Carey, S. (2018).  Early-developing causal perception is sensitive to multiple physical constraints. Refereed Conference Proceedings; Cognitive Science Society annual meeting, July 25-28.

Pepperberg, I., Gray, S., Mody, S., Cornero, F., and Carey S. (2018). Logical Reasoning by a Grey Parrot? A Case Study of the Disjunctive Syllogism. Behaviour.

Hochmann, J.R., Carey, S., and Mehler, J.  (2018). Infants learn a rule predicated on the relations same but fail to simultaneously learn a rule predicated on the relation different.  Cognition, 177, 49-57.

Haward, P., Wagner, L., Carey, S. & Prasada, S. (2018). The development of principled connections and kind representations. Cognition,176, 255-268.

Bascandziev I, Tardiff N, Zaitchik D, Carey S (2018). The role of domain-general cognitive resources in children's construction of a vitalist theory of biology. Cognitive Psychology, 104: 1-28.

Powell et al., Hobbs, K., Bardis, A., Carey, S. & Saxe, R.  (2017). Replications of implicit theory of mind tasks with varying representational demands. Cognitive Development, 40-50.

Hochmann, J. R., Tuerk, A., Sanborn, S., Zhu, R., Long, R., and Carey, S. (2017).  Children’s representation of abstract relations in relational/array match-to-sample tasks. Cognitive Psychology, 99, 17-43.

Carey, S., Shusterman, A., Haward, P., & Distefano, R. (2017). Do Analog Number Representations Underlie the Meanings of Young Children’s Verbal Numerals? Cognition 168: 243-255.

Powell L. J. & Carey S. (2017). Executive function depletion in children and its impact on theory of mind. Cognition 164:150–162.

Tardiff N, Bascandziev I, Sandor K, Carey S, Zaitchik D (2017). Some consequences of normal aging for generating conceptual explanations: A case study of vitalist biology. Cognitive Psychology. 95: 145-163.

Feiman, R.,Mody, S., Sanborn, S., Carey, S. (2017). What do you mean, no? Toddlers’ comprehension of logical "no" and "not". Language Learning and Development, 13(4): 430-450.

LeCorre, M., Li, P., Huang, B., Jia, G., & Carey, S. (2016). Numerical morphology supports early number word learning: Evidence from a comparison of young Mandarin and English learners.  Cognitive Psychology, 88, 162-186.

Mody, S., & Carey, S. (2016).  The Emergence of Reasoning by the Disjunctive Syllogism in Early Childhood.  Cognition, 154, 40-48.

Bascandziev, I., Powell, L., Harris, P. & Carey, S (2016). A role for executive functions in explanatory understanding of the physical world.  Cognitive Development, 71-85.

Hochmann, J.-R., Mody, S., & Carey, S. (2016).  Infants’ representations of same and different in match- and nonmatch-to-sample. Cognitive Psychology 86, 87-111.

Feiman, R., Carey, S., & Cushman, F. (2015).  Infants representations of others’ goals: Representing approach over avoidance. Cognition, 136, 204-214.

Carey, S., Zaitchik, D. & Bascandziev, I. (2015) Theories of development: In dialog with Jean Piaget. Developmental Review, 38, 36-54.

Carey, S. (2015). The science of cognitive science. Social Anthropology, 23(2), 204-207.

Feiman, R., Carey, S., & Cushman, F. (2015) Infants’ representations of others’ goals: Representing approach over avoidance. Cognition, 136, 204-214.

Lakusta, L. & Carey, S. (2014) Twelve-Month-Old Infants’ Encoding of Goal and Source Paths in Agentive and Non-Agentive Motion Events, Language Learning and Development, 11(2), 152-175.

Carey, S. (2014) On Learning New Primitives in the Language of Thought: Reply to Rey. Mind & Language, 29, 133–166.

Baron, A. S., Dunham, Y., Banaji, M., & Carey, S. (2014) Constraints on the acquisition of social category concepts. Journal of Cognition and Development15(2), 238-268.

Skerry, A. E., Carey, S. E., & Spelke, E. S. (2013) First-person action experience reveals sensitivity to action efficiency in prereaching infants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,110(46), 18728-18733.

Schachner, A., & Carey, S. (2013). Reasoning about ‘irrational’ actions: When intentional movements cannot be explained, the movements themselves are seen as the goal. Cognition, 129, 309-327.

Beier, J. S. & Carey, S. (2013) Contingency is not enough: Social context guides third-party attributions of intentional agency. Developmental psychology, 50(3), 889.

Feiman, R., Carey, S., & Cushman, F. (2013). The development of intent-based moral judgment. Cognition127(1), 6-21.

Zaitchik, D., Iqbal, Y., & Carey, S. (2013). The Effect of Executive Function on Biological Reasoning in Young Children: An Individual Differences Study. Child Development. 85(1), 160-175.

Winkler-Rhoades, N.*, Carey, S. & Spelke, E.S. (2013). Two-year-old children interpret abstract, purely geometric maps. Developmental Science, 16(3), 365-376.

Pepperberg, I. & Carey, S.  (2012). Grey Parrot Number Acquisition: The Inference of Cardinal Value from Ordinal Position on the Numeral List. Cognition, 125(2), 219-232.

Carey, S. (2011). Concept Innateness, Concept Continuity, and Bootstrapping: A Response to Commentaries on The Origin of Concepts. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 34, 113-167.

Carey, S. (2011). The Origin of Concepts: A précis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 34, 113-167.

Spaepen, E., Coppola, M., Spelke. E, Carey, S., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2011). Number Without a Language Model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(8), 3163-3168.

Thomsen, L., Frankenhuis, W., Ingold-Smith, M. & Carey, S (2011) The Big and the Mighty: Preverbal Infants Represent Social Dominance. Science, 331(6016), 477-480.

Dunham, Y., Baron, A., & Carey, S. (2011) Consequences of ‘Minimal’ Group Affiliations. Child Development, 82(3), 293-811.

Hyde, D., Boas, D., Blair, C., & Carey, S. (2010). Near-infrared spectroscopy shows right parietal specialization for number in pre-verbal infants. Neuroimage, 53(2), 647-652.

Srinivasan, M. & Carey, S. (2010). The long and the short of it: On the nature and origin of functional overlap between representations of space and time. Cognition, 116(2), 217-241.

Muentener, P. & Carey, S. (2010). Infants’ causal representations of state change events. Cognitive Psychology, 61(2010), 63-86.

Carey, S. (2010). Beyond Fast Mapping. Language Learning and Development, 6(3), 184-205.

Ganea, P.A., Allen, M.A., Butler, L., & Carey, S., DeLoache, J.S. (2009). Toddlers’ referential understanding of pictures. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 104, 283-295.

Li, P., Dunham, Y. & Carey, S (2009). Of Substance: The Nature of Language Effects on Entity Construal. Cognitive Psychology, 58, 487-524.

Li, P., Ogura, T., Barner, D., Yang, S., & Carey, S. (2009). Does the conceptual distinction between singular and plural sets depend on language? Developmental Psychology, 45, 1644-1653.

Carey, S. (2009). Where our number concepts come from. Journal of Philosophy, 106 (4), 220-254.

Barth, H., Baron, A., Spelke, E., & Carey, S. (2009). Children’s multiplicative transformations of discrete and continuous quantities. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 103, 441-454.

Wood, J.N., Kouider, S., & Carey, S. (2009). Acquisition of singular-plural morphology. Developmental Psychology, 45(1), 202-206.

Carey, S. (2008). Math schemata and the origins of number representations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31(6), 645-646.

Sarnecka, B.W. & Carey, S. (2008). How counting represents number: What children must learn and when they learn it. Cognition, 108(3), 662-674.

LeCorre, M. & Carey, S. (2008). Why the verbal counting principles are constructed out of representations of small sets of individuals: A reply to Gallistel. Cognition, 107(2), 650-662.

Barner, D., Wood, J., Hauser, M. & Carey, S. (2008). Evidence for a non-linguistic distinction between singular and plural sets in rhesus monkeys. Cognition, 107(2), 603-622.

Shtulman, A. & Carey, S. (2007). Improbable or Impossible? How Children Reason About the Possibility of Extraordinary Events. Child Development, 78(3), 1015-1032.

Le Corre, M. & Carey, S. (2007). One, two, three, four, nothing more: An investigation of the conceptual sources of the verbal counting principles. Cognition, 105, 395-438.

Barner, D., Thalwitz, D., Wood, J., Yang, S., & Carey, S. (2007). On the relation between the acquisition of singular-plural morpho-syntax and the conceptual distinction between one and more than one. Developmental Science, 10(3), 365-373.

Saxe, R., Tzelnic, T., & Carey, S. (2007). Knowing Who Dunnit: Infants identify the causal agent in an unseen causal interaction. Developmental Psychology, 43(1), 149-158.

Saxe, R., & Carey, S. (2006). The Perception of causation in infancy. Acta Psychologica, 123 (1-2), 144-165.

Kouider, S., Halberda, J., Wood, J.N. & Carey, S. (2006). The acquisition of English number marking: the singular-Plural distinction. Language Learning and Development, 2(1), pp. 1-25.

Le Corre, M.*, Brannon, E.M.*, Van de Walle, G.*, & Carey, S. (2006). Re-visiting the competence/performance debate in the acquisition of the counting principles. Cognitive Psychology, 52(3), pp. 130-169.

Lombrozo, T.* & Carey, S. (2006). Functional explanation and the function of explanation. Cognition, 99(2), 167-204.

Saxe, R., Tzelnic, T., & Carey, S. (2006). Five month-old infants know humans are solid, like inanimate objects. Cognition, 101(1), B1-B8.

Feigenson, L*. & Carey, S. (2005). On the limits of infantsí quantification of small object arrays. Cognition, 97(3), 295-313.

Preissler, M.A*. & Carey, S. (2005). The role of inferences about referential intent in word learning: Evidence from autism. Cognition, 97(1), B13-B23.

Saxe, R., Tenenbaum, J., and Carey, S. (2005). Secret agents: 10 and 12-month-olds infer an unseen cause of the motion of an inanimate object. Psychological Science, 16(12), 995-1001.

Smith, C., Solomon, G.*, and Carey, S. (2005). Never getting to zero: Elementary school studentsí understanding of the infinite divisibility of number and matter. Cognitive Psychology, 51(2), 101-140.

Wagner, L.* & Carey, S. (2005). 12-month-old infants represent probable endings of motion events. Infancy, 7(1), pp. 73-83.

Saxe, R., Carey, S., & Kanwisher, N. (2004). Understanding other minds: Linking developmental psychology and functional neuroimaging. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 87-124.

Carey, S. (2004). Bootstrapping and the origins of concepts. Daedalus, 59-68.

Preissler, M. A. & Carey, S. (2004). Do pictures and words function as symbols for 18- and 24-month-old children? Journal of Cognition & Development, 5(2), 185-212.

Xu, F., Carey, S., and Quint, N. (2004). The emergence of kind-based object individuation in infancy. Cognitive Psychology, 45, 155-190.

Feigenson, L. & Carey, S. (2003). Tracking individuals via object files: Evidence from infants manual search. Developmental Science, 6(5), 568-584.

Hauser, M.D. & Carey, S. (2003). Spontaneous representations of small numbers of objects by rhesus macaques: Examinations of content and format. Cognitive Psychology, 47, 367-401.

Wagner, L. and Carey, S. (2003). Individuation of Objects and Events: A Developmental Study. Cognition, 90, 163-191.

Carey, S. (2002). Evidence for numerical abilities in young infants: A fatal flaw? Developmental Science, 5(2), 202-205.

Feigenson, L., Carey, S., & Hauser, M. (2002). The representations underlying infants choice of more: Object files vs. analog magnitudes. Psychological Science, 13, 150-156.

Feigenson, L., Carey, S., &: Spelke, E. (2002). Infants discrimination of number vs. continuous extent. Cognitive Psychology, 44, 33-66.

Huntley-Fenner, G, Carey, S., & Solimando, A. (2002). Objects are individuals but stuff doesnít count: Perceived rigidity and cohesiveness influence infantsí representations of small numbers of discrete entities. Cognition, 85, 203-221.

Bloch, M., Solomon, G., & Carey, S. (2001). Zafimaniry: An understanding of what is passed on from parents to children. A cross-cultural investigation. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 1(1), 43-68.

Carey, S. (2001). Evolutionary and Ontogenetic Foundations of Arithmetic. Mind and Language, 16(1), 37-55.

Carey, S., & Williams, T. (2001). The role of object recognition in young infants’ object segregation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 78, 55-60.

Carey, S., & Xu, F. (2001). Infants knowledge of objects: Beyond object-files and object tracking.Cognition, 80, 179-213.

Matan, A., & Carey, S. (2001). Developmental changes within the core of artifact concepts. Cognition, 78, 1-26.

Uller, C., Hauser, M., & Carey, S. (2001). The spontaneous representation of number in a New World primate species, Cotton-top tamarins. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 115(3), 248-257.

Carey, S. (2000). Science education as conceptual change. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 21, 13-19.

Carey, S. (2000). The origin of concepts. Journal of Cognition and Development, 1, 37-41.

Hauser, M., Carey, S., & Hauser, L. (2000). Spontaneous number representation in semi-free-ranging rhesus monkeys. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences.

Hood, B., Carey, S., & Prasada, S. (2000). Predicting the outcomes of†physical events: Two-year-olds fail to reveal knowledge of solidity and support. Child Development, 71(6), 1540-1554.

Van de Walle, G., Carey, S ., & Prevor, M. (2000). Bases for object individuation in infancy: Evidence from manual search. Journal of Cognition and Development,1, 249-280.

Xu, F. & Carey, S. (2000). The emergence of kind concepts: A rejoinder to Needham & Baillargeon. Cognition, 74, 285-301.

Uller, C., Carey, S., Huntley-Fenner, G., & Klatt, L. (1999). What representations might underlie infant numerical knowledge. Cognitive Development, 14, 1-36.

Xu, F., Carey, S., & Welch, J. (1999). Infants’ ability to use object kind information for†object individuation. Cognition, 70. 137-166.

Carey, S. (1998). Knowledge of number: Its evolution and ontogenesis. Science, 242, 641-642.

Johnson, S., & Carey, S. (1998). Knowledge enrichment and conceptual change in folkbiology: Evidence from Williams Syndrome. Cognitive Psychology, 37, 156-200.

Johnson, S., Slaughter, V., & Carey, S (1998). Whose gaze would infants follow? The elicitation of gaze following in 12-month-olds. Developmental Science, 1, 233-238.

Rhodes, G., Carey, S., Byatt, G., & Proffitt, F. (1998). Coding spatial variations in faces and Simple shapes: A test of two models. Vision Research, 38, 2307-2321.

Carey, S. (1997) Do constraints on word meaning reflect prelinguistic cognitive architecture? The Japanese Journal of Cognitive Science, 4(1), 35-58.

Carey, S. & Spelke, E. (1996). Science and core knowledge. Philosophy of Science, 63(4), 515-533.

Solomon, G., Johnson, S., Zaitchik, D., & Carey, S. (1996). Like father, like son: Young†children’s understanding of how and why offspring resemble their parents. Child Development, 67, 151-171.

Xu, F., & Carey, S. (1996). Infants’ metaphysics: The case of numerical identity. Cognitive†Psychology, 30(2), 111-153.

Carey, S. (1994). Does learning a language require conceptual change? Lingua, 92, 143-167.

Carey, S., & Diamond, R. (1994). Are faces perceived as configurations more by adults than by children? Visual Cognition, 1, 253-274.

Carey, S., & Smith, C. (1993). On understanding the nature of scientific knowledge. Educational Psychologist, 28, 235-251.

Carey, S. (1992). Becoming a face expert. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 335, 95-103.

Soja, N.N., Carey, S., & Spelke, E.S. (1992). Perception, ontology, and word meaning. Cognition, 45, 101-107.

Sodian, B., Zaitchik, D., & Carey, S. (1991). Young children’s differentiation of hypothetical beliefs from evidence. Child Development, 62, 753-766.

Soja, N.N., Carey, S., & Spelke, E.S. (1991). Ontological categories guide young children’s inductions of word meaning: Object terms and substance terms. Cognition, 38(2), 179-211.

Diamond, R., & Carey, S. (1990). On the acquisition of pattern encoding skills. Cognitive Development, 5(4), 345-368.

Carey, S., Evans, R., Honda, M., Unger, C., & Jay, E. (1989). An experiment is when you try and see if it works: middle school conception of science. International Journal of Science Education, 11, 514-529.

Shapiro, L., Zurif, E., Carey, S., & Grossman, M. (1989). Comprehension of lexical subcategory distinctions by aphasic patients: Proper / common and mass / count nouns. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 32, 481-488.

Carey, S. (1988). †Conceptual differences between children and adults. Mind and Language, 3,167-181.

Rhodes, G., Brennan, S., & Carey, S. (1987). Identification and ratings of caricatures: implications for mental representations of faces. Cognitive Psychology, 19(4), 473-479.

Carey, S. (1986). Cognitive science and science education. American Psychologist, 41, 1123-1130. Reprinted in Open University Press, Readings in the Psychology of Education and in C. Hedley, J. Houtz, & A. Baratta (eds.), Cognition, Curriculum, and Literacy. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1990.

Diamond, R., & Carey, S. (1986). Why faces are and are not special: An effect of expertise. ††Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 115(3), 107-117.

Grossman, M., Carey, S., Zurif, E., & Diller, L. (1986). Proper and common nouns: Form class judgments in Broca’s aphasia. Brain and Language, 28, 114-125.

Smith, C., Carey, S., & Wiser, M. (1985). On differentiation: a case study of the development of size, weight, and density. Cognition, 21 (3), 177-237.

Diamond, R., Carey, S., & Black K. (1983). Genetic influences on the development of spatial skills during early adolescence. Cognition, 13, 167-185.

Levine, S., & Carey, S. (1982). Up front: Acquisition of a concept and a word. Journal of Child Language, 9, 645-657.

Carey, S., Diamond, R., & Woods, B. (1980). The development of face recognition–a maturational component? Developmental Psychology, 16(4), 257-269.

Mann, V., Diamond, R., & Carey, S., (1979). Development of voice recognition: Parallels with face recognition. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 27, 153-165.

Woods, B., & Carey, S. (1979). Language deficits after apparent clinical recovery from childhood aphasia. Annals of Neurology, 6, 405-409.

Dricker, J., Butters, N., Berman, G., Samuels, I., & Carey, S. (1978). The recognition and encoding of faces by alcoholic Korsakoff and right hemisphere patients. Neuropsychologia, 16, 683-695.

Leehey, S., Carey, S., Diamond, R., & Cahn, A. (1978). Upright and inverted faces: The right hemisphere knows the difference. Cortex, 14(3), 411-420.

Carey, S., & Diamond, R. (1977). From piecemeal to configurational representation of faces. Science, 195, 312-313.

Diamond, R., & Carey, S. (1977). Developmental changes in the representation of faces. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 23, 1-22.

Chipman, S., & Carey, S. (1975). Anatomy of a stimulus domain: The relation between multi-dimensional and unidimensional sealing of noise bands. Perception and Psychophysics, 17, 417-424.

Alexander, C.W.F., & Carey, S. (1968). Subsymmetries. Perception and Psychophysics, 4, 73-77.

Books and Monographs

Carey, S. (2009). The Origin of Concepts. New York: Oxford University Press.

Astuti, R., Solomon, G., and Carey, S. (2004). Constraints on Conceptual Development: A Case Study of the Acquisition of Folkbiological and Folksociological Knowledge in Madagascar. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development.

Carey, S. & Gelman, R. (Eds.) (1991). The Epigenesis of Mind: Essays on Biology and†Cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Carey, S. (1985). Conceptual Change in Childhood. Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books, MIT Press.

Book Chapters

Carey, S. (2015).  Why theories of concepts should not ignore the problem of acquisition.  In E. Margolis & S. Laurence (eds).  Concepts:  New Directions. Cambridge:  MIT Press, 415-454.

Thomsen, L.* & Carey, S. (2013). Core Cognition of relational models.  In M. R. Banaji and S. A. Gelman (Eds). Navigating the social world:  What infants, children, and other species can teach us. New York: Oxford University Press, 17-22.

Baillargeon, R. & Carey, S. (2012). Core cognition and beyond: The acquisition of physical and numerical knowledge.  In S. M. Pauen (Ed.), Early Childhood Development and Later Outcome. New York:  Cambridge University Press, 33-65.

Rosenberg, R.D., & Carey, S. (2009). Infants’ reasoning about material entities. In B.M. Hood and L.R. Santos (Eds.), The Origins of Object Knowledge. Oxford University Press.

Carey, S. (2009). The Making of Abstract Concepts: A Case Study of Natural Number. In Marischal, D. (Ed). The Making of Abstract Concepts. Oxford University Press.

Keleman, D. & Carey, S. (2007). The essence of artifacts: Developing the design stance. In E. Margolis & S. Lawrence, (Eds.), Creation of the mind: Essays on artifacts and their representation. Oxford University Press.

Carey, S. & Sarnecka, B.W. (2006). The Development of Human Conceptual Representations.In M. Johnson & Y. Munakata (Eds.), Attention and Performance: Vol XXI. Processes of Change in Brain and Cognitive Development. Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 473-496.

Carey, S. (2002). On the very possibility of discontinuities in development. In DePoux, E. (Ed). Essays in Honor of Jacques Mehler. Cambridge, MA., MIT Press.

Carey, S. (2002). The origin of concepts: continuing the conversation. Stein, N.L., Bauer, P. J., & Rabinowitz, M. (Eds.), Representation, Memory, and Development: Essays in Honor of Jean Mandler. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 43-52.

Carey, S. (2001). Bridging the gap between cognitive development and developmental neuroscience: A case study of the representation of number. In C. A. Nelson & M. Luciana (Eds.) The Handbook of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 415-432.

Carey, S. (2001). Whorf vs. Continuity Theorists: Bringing data to bear on the debate.†in M. Bowerman and D. Levinson (Eds.), Cross-linguistic variation in the cognitive substrate of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 155-214.

Carey, S. & Johnson, S. (2000). Metarepresentation and conceptual change: Evidence from Williams Syndrome. In Sperber, D. (Ed.), Metarepresentation. †Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 225-264.

Carey, S., & Markman, E. (1999). Cognitive Development. In R.E. Rumelhart & B.O. Martin (Eds.), Handbook of Cognition and Perception, Vol. 1: Cognitive Science, 201-254.

Slaughter, V., Jaakkola, K., & Carey, S. (1999). Constructing a coherent theory. Childrenís Biological understanding of life and death. In M. Siegel & C. Peterson (Eds.) Childrenís Understanding of Biology and Health. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 71-98.

Carey, S.& Xu, F. (1999) Sortals and kinds: an appreciation of John Macnamara. In R. Jackendoff, P. Bloom, & K. Wynn, (Eds.), John Macnamara: On the Border. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 311-336.

Carey, S. (1999). Sources of conceptual change. In E. K. Scholnick, K. Nelson, S. A. Gelman & P. Miller (Eds.), Conceptual Development: Piagetís Legacy. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 293-326.

Hauser, M. & Carey, S. (1998). Building a cognitive creature from a set of primitives: Evolutionary and developmental insights. In C. Allen & D. Cummings eds). The Evolution of Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 51-106.

Carey, S. (1998). Knowledge of Number: Evolutionary and Ontogenetic Origins. In M. S. Gazzaniga & J. S. Altman (Eds.), Brain and Mind: Evolutionary Perspectives. Strasbourg: Human Frontier Science Program, 131-149.

Carey, S. (1996). Cognitive domains as modes of thought. In D. Olson (Ed.), Modes of Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 187-215.

Carey, S. (1996). Perceptual development. In R. Gelman and T. Au (Eds.), Handbook of Perception and Cognition: Perceptual and Cognitive Development; New York: Academic Press, 49-69.

Carey, S. (1995). Continuity and discontinuity in cognitive development. In D.N. Osherson (Ed.), An Invitation to Cognitive Science, Vol. 3: Thinking. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 101-129.

Carey, S. (1995). On the origins of causal understanding. In D. Sperber, D. Premack, and A.J. Premack (eds.), Causal Cognition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 268-308.

Carey, S., & Spelke, E.S. (1994). Domain specific knowledge and conceptual change. In L.†Hirschfeld & S. Gelman (eds.), Mapping the Mind: Domain Specificity in Cognition and Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 169-200.

Carey, S. (1993). Speaking of objects, as such. In G. Harman (ed.), Conceptions of the Mind: Essays in Honor of G.A. Miller. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 139-159.

Carey, S. (1992). The origin and evolution of everyday concepts. In R. Giere (ed.), Cognitive Models of Science (Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Vol. XV). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 89-128.

Carey, S. (1992). Ontology and meaning–two contrasting views. In E. Dromi (ed.), Language and Cognition: A Developmental Perspective. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 88-103.

Carey, S. (1991). Knowledge acquisition: enrichment or conceptual change? In S. Carey & R. Gelman (eds.), The Epigenesis of Mind: Essays in Biology and Cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 257-291.

Gallistel, R., Brown, A., Carey, S., Gelman, R., & Keil, F. (1991). Lessons from animal learning for the study of cognitive development. In S. Carey & R. Gelman (eds.), The Epigenesis of Mind: Essays in Biology and Cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 3-36.

Carey, S. (1990). Cognitive development. In D. Osherson & E. Smith (eds.),Invitation to Cognitive Science, 3. Bradford Books, MIT Press, 147-172.

Carey, S. (1988). Why Jane and Johnny aren’t learning science. Washington, DC: Federation of Behavioral, Psychological, and†Cognitive Sciences: Science and Public Policy Seminars.

Carey, S. (1988). Cognitive development in childhood. In S. Schiffer and S. Steele (eds.), Cognition and Representation.†Westview Press, 131-160.

Carey, S. (1988). Lexical Development–The Rockefeller Years. In B. Hirst (ed.), The Making of Cognitive Science: Essays in Honor of George A. Miller. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 197-209.

Carey, S. (1987). Theory changes in childhood. In B. Inhelder, D. Caprona & A. Cornce-Wells (eds.), Piaget Today. †Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 141-163.

Carey, S. (1986). The Acquisition of Scientific Knowledge–The Problem of Reorganization. In S. Strauss (ed.), Ontogeny, Phylogeny, and the History of Science. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Carey, S. (1985). Are children fundamentally different thinkers and learners from adults? In S.F. Chipman, J.W. Segal & R. Glaser (eds.), Thinking and Learning Skills, 2. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 485-517. Reprinted by Open University Press: Open University Readings in Cognitive Development.

Carey, S. (1985). Constraints on semantic development. In J. Mehler (ed.), Neonate Cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 381-398.

Carey, S. (1984). Cognitive development–the descriptive problem. M. Gazzaniga (ed.), Handbook for Cognitive Neurology. Plenum, 37-66.

Wiser, M. & Carey, S. (1983). When heat and temperature were one. In D. Genter and A. Stevens (eds.)., Mental Models. †Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 267-297.

Carey, S. (1983). Constraints on natural kind terms. In T. Seiler and W. Wannenmacher (eds.), Concept Development and the Development of Word Meaning. Springer, 126-146.

Carey, S. (1982). Semantic development, state of the art. In L. Gleitman and E. Wanner (eds.), Language Acquisition, State of the Art.†Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 347-389.

Carey, S. (1982). Face recognition–anomalies of development. In S. Strauss (ed.), U-Shaped Curves in Development. New York: Academic Press, 169-190.

Carey, S. (1981). The development of face perception. In G. Davies, H. Ellis & J. Shephard (eds.), Perceiving and Remembering Faces, New York: Academic Press, 9-38.

Carey, S. & Diamond, R. (1980). Maturational determination of the developmental course of face coding.In D. Kaplan (ed.), The Biological Bases of Cognitive Processes.†Cambridge, MA:†MIT Press, 60-93.

Carey, S. (1980). Maturational factors in human development. In D. Kaplan (ed.), Biological Bases of Mental Processes.Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1-7.

Carey, S. & Bartlett, E. (1978).†Acquiring a single new word. Proceedings of the Stanford Child Language Conference, 15, 17-29.

Leehey, S. & Carey, S. (1978). Up front, the acquisition of a concept and a word. Proceedings of the Stanford Child Language Conference, 15, 45-56.

Carey, S. (1978). A case study: Face recognition. In E. Walker (ed.), Explorations in the Biology of Language.Montgomery, VT: Bradford Books, 175-201.

Carey, S. (1978).†The child as word learner.†In J. Bresnan, G. Miller and M. Halle (eds.),Linguistic Theory and Psychological Reality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 264-293.

Carey, S. (1978).†Less may never mean more. In R. Campbell & P. Smith (eds.), Recent Advances in the Psychology of Language. New York: Plenum Press, 109-132.

Carey, S. (1978). The biological basis of cognitive development. In S. Brainard (ed.), Learning Disabilities: Issues and Recommendations for Research. National Institutes of Education, 14-31.

Carey, S. (1974). Cognitive Competence. In K.J. Connolly & J.S. Bruner (eds.), The Growth of Competence. New York: Academic Press, 169-193.